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GIS Moyen-Orient July 2019 “The Perception of the Prophet among Young Muslims in France and Germany: Sociological and Anthropological Cross Surveys”

The Perception of the Prophet among Young Muslims in France and Germany: Sociological and Anthropological Cross Surveys

La perception du Prophète chez les jeunes musulmans de France et d’Allemagne : enquêtes sociologiques et anthropologiques croisées

Responsable de l’atelier : Dilek SARMIS (CETOBaC-EHESS)

Le programme de recherches ANR-DFG Prophet (CETOBaC-EHESS et université de Bochum, Allemagne) a mis en place, en coopération avec l’Iremam (Institut de recherches et d’études sur le monde arabe et musulman-Aix-en-Provence) et l’Institut d’études politiques (IEP) d’Aix-en-Provence, une série d’enquêtes sociologiques et anthropologiques, auprès de jeunes musulmans ou bien de type intergénérationnel, sur leur perception du prophète Muhammad et leur relation à lui. Ces enquêtes sont menées parallèlement en France et en Allemagne, à partir d’un ensemble de questions axées sur la transmission et la mémoire, d’entretiens semi-directifs et d’une observation directe (prières intimes, prières à la mosquée, participation à des cercles spirituels, lectures religieuses de l’enquêté, discussions familiales sur le Prophète etc.).

L’atelier proposé consistera en une présentation des résultats et une discussion approfondie des implications de cette investigation de la relation contemporaine de jeunes musulmans d’Europe au Prophète Muhammad. Celle-ci est en effet de nature à éclairer plusieurs dimensions de la figure prophétique en Islam : les modalités de sa représentation, son importance dans la pratique rituelle et la vie quotidienne des croyants, sa dimension de ciment et de miroir communautaire, ainsi que la compréhension des différentes orientations de l’Islam contemporain ainsi favorisée.

 

Programme

Geisser Vincent (CNRS-IREMAM, Sciences Po Aix)

Nouiouar Youssef (Université de Montpellier)

Pratiques et représentations du Prophète Mohamed chez les jeunes musulmans français

Les attentats contre la rédaction du journal satirique Charlie Hebdo commis en janvier 2015 et revendiqués par ses auteurs, les frères Kouachi, comme une « réparation » de l’honneur du Prophète Mohamed, a relancé dans le débat public la dimension prophétique de la socialisation religieuse des jeunes musulmans français. Malgré un nombre substantiel de commentaires écrits et oraux sur le rapport émotionnel des croyants et pratiquants musulmans à la figure de Mohamed peu de travaux sociologiques se sont penchés de manière approfondie sur les représentations, les discours et les pratiques sociales des jeunes musulmans autour du Prophète. Au-delà des discours de sens commun postulant une « radicale spécificité » du personnage du Prophète Mohamed dans la religion musulmane (comparé, par exemple, au rapport des croyants des autres religions monothéistes à leurs prophètes), l’objectif de cette communication est d’analyser les représentations, les discours et les pratiques sociales des jeunes musulmans français, en s’interrogeant sur la dimension prophétique de leur socialisation religieuse. Cette étude se fonde sur une cinquantaine d’entretiens semi-directifs avec des jeunes français de religion musulmane entre 16 et 25 ans, ainsi que sur des observations participantes dans le cadre des groupes de parole conduites au cours de l’année 2018.

 

Thielmann Jörn (Erlangen Zentrum für Islam und Recht in Europa)

Coming of Age as Muslim: Looking at Young Muslims in Germany and their attitude towards the Prophetic model

Young Muslims, especially male, are often perceived as a threat to German society. Showing religious devotion and referring to Islam, its scriptural sources and even the prophetic model itself count in post-secular society as radical, at best as irritating. The paper critically examines German research on young Muslims and compares the dominant representations in the scientific literature with self-perceptions by this group. It is asked what role the Prophet Muhammad plays in their lives and daily practices and how their religious frames of reference are formed. The assumed dominance of this religious frame for everyday life will be questioned. Instead, I propose to understand the discourses and practices of young Muslims in Germany as deeply embedded in quite normal adolescent processes.

 

Reichmuth Stefan (Université de Bochum)

Perceptions of the Prophet among young Muslims in Western Germany: explorations and preliminary results

As a model for personal emulation and normative precedence, and as a source of hope, pride and empowerment, the Prophet of Islam remains of central importance for the Muslim believers. Conflicts within Islam, but even more so with non-Muslims,  gained in intensity whenever the Prophet and his image was at stake. But the personal dimension of the Muslim’s perception of the Prophet, especially in present times, has found only minimal attention and remains largely underexplored both in Islamological and in anthropological research. The paper presents the course and results of an exploration which was undertaken by students of Islamic and Religious Studies at Bochum University among young Muslim people of the Ruhr Area (between 15 and 25 years). 15 lengthy guided interviews with young Muslims of a highly varied background were conducted in the course of this seminar and were then scrutinized for the major lines of attachment and commitment to the Prophet which can be identified in them. Family and mosque socialization as well as religious youth circles and school and university milieus can be seen as contributing in their own specific ways to the image of the Prophet and to its changes in the course of the life of the young Muslim interview partners. Their varied responses to the public controversies related to the Prophet, and the – apparently rather limited – impact which these have exerted on them will finally be discussed.

 

 

 

4th Workshop Anr-Dfg Prophet 2-3 May 2019 “The Presence and Eschatological Role of the Prophet Muḥammad between Individual and Collective Experience”

Lien vers le programme téléchargeable
http://iismm.ehess.fr/index.php?1891

The Presence and Eschatological Role of the Prophet Muḥammad between Individual and Collective Experience

 

2019/05/02-03 : Workshop « The Presence and Eschatological Role of the Prophet Muḥammad between Individual and Collective Experience »


2-3 May 2019

Ecole des Hautes études en Sciences sociales (EHESS), 54 boulevard Raspail, Paris

Room BS1_28

 

PROGRAM

 

Thursday, 2 May 2019, Morning

9.30-9.45      Welcoming Coffee

9.45-10.00    Opening of the Workshop

 

First Session  9.30-13.00

The Prophet and the Construction of the Self: Morals and Emotions

10.00-10.30 Abdoulaye Sounaye (Zentrum Moderner Orient, Berlin), Son Manzon Allah: Reclaiming the Prophet through Performance

10.40-11.10  Fabio Vicini (29 Mayis University, Istanbul), Embodying the sunna, Cultivating the Brotherhood: Muslim exemplary conduct in a Sufi-inspired reformist community in contemporary Turkey

11.20-11.40 Coffee Break

11.40-12.10  Samuela Pagani (University of Salento, Lecce, Italy), « Priez comme vous m’avez vu prier » : l’intériorisation du modèle de Muhammad selon Mahmūd Muhammad Tāhā (“Pray as you have seen me pray”: The Interiorisation of the Model of Muhammad According to Mahmūd Muhammad Tāhā)

12.20-12.50  General Discussion

13.00-14.45 Lunch

 

Thursday, 2 May 2019, Afternoon

Second Session 15.00-16.35

The Prophet and his Heritage: Between Recital, Encounter, and Vision

15.00-15.30  Denis Gril (Iremam, Aix-en-Provence), Le Maître des maîtres: de la vision du Prophète en songe et à l’état de veille (The Master of Masters: About the Vision of the Prophet in Dreams and in the Waking State)  

15.40-16.10  Thomas Pierret (CNRS, Iremam, Aix-en-Provence), Prophet-related ritual innovations in modern Syria :defending the “old orthodoxy” with the ulama in it

 

16.20-16.35 Coffee Break

 

Third Session 16.35-17.45

Materiality of the Prophetic Presence : Body, Relics, Places, Symbols

16.35-17.05  Hiba Abid (post-doc Collège de France, Paris), Anouk Cohen (Centre Jacques Berque, Rabat), Uniting with the Prophet: Codicological and Anthropological Approaches to the Material, Sensory and Aesthetic Experience of the Dalā’il al-Khayrāt Collection

17.15-17.45  General Discussion

Dinner for the participants

 

Friday, 3 May, Morning

Fourth Session 9.00-12.00

Materiality of the Prophetic Presence : Body, Relics, Places, Symbols

9.00-09.30    Luca Patrizi (University of Turin), “Drinking” the Baraka of the Prophet : The Role of Water in the Veneration of the Âthâr al-Nabî in Contemporary Islam

9.40-10.10    Sean McLoughlin (University of Leeds), Visiting the Prophet’s Grave: Contested Pieties, Performativity and Translocal Circulations of Material Religion in UK Muslim Diasporas

10.20-10.40 Coffee Break

10.40-11.10  Patrick Eisenlohr (University of Göttingen), Sonic Atmospheres and the Presence of the Prophet in Mauritian Muslim Devotional Practices

11.20-12.00  General Discussion

12.00-14.00 Lunch

 

Friday, 3 May, Afternoon

Fifth Session 14.00-16.45

Benedictions of the Prophet and Prayers for his Intersession (tawassul and istighâtha)

14.00-14.30  Nelly Amri (Université de la Manouba- Tunis), Les assemblées nocturnes de « prière sur le Prophète » au Maghreb ou Majâlis al-‘Arûsî (m. v. 897/1492). Une pratique dévotionnelle toujours vivante et son ancrage soufi (The Nocturnal Meetings of “Prayer on the Prophet” in the Maghreb or Majâlis al-‘Arûsî (v. 897/1492). A Devotional Practice still alive and its Sufi Anchoring)

14.40-15.10  Michele Petrone (Université de Copenhague – Islam in the Horn of Africa Project), From Tunisia to Ethiopia: the uses of a collection of prayers on the Prophet, the Tanbīh al-Anām of Ibn ʻAzzūm (d. 1552-3)

15.20-15.50  Andrea Brigaglia (Université de Capetown), Beyond “Devotional literature”: reading the writings of Muhammad Ghibrima al-Dâghirî (d. 1975) in the Longer History of the Salawât as a literary Genre

16.00-16.30  General Discussion

16.30-16.45 Coffee Break

Sixth Session 16.45-17.30 

Conclusions

 

Argumentaire du workshop :

The rise of Prophetic piety among Muslim communities, anchored in forms of faith and doctrine which emerged already since the 12th century, gained momentum in the early modern period and has continued ever since. Continuer la lecture de 4th Workshop Anr-Dfg Prophet 2-3 May 2019 “The Presence and Eschatological Role of the Prophet Muḥammad between Individual and Collective Experience”

A four years research program

Tomb cover, Turkey, 1800s, © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

 

Attachment to the Prophet in Islam

Attachment to the Prophet is shared by all the  different  individuals,  groups  and communities which define themselves as Muslims, whether Sunnī or Shīʿī, whether attached to the letter or rather the spirit of Islam, whether proponents of Islamic reform or secular Muslims. As a focus for personal emulation and normative precedence and as a source of hope for salvation, cultural pride and empowerment, the Prophet of Islam continues his presence among the Muslim believers. This includes eschatological beliefs about him which connect the beginnings of Islam (and for some also the origin oft he whole created world) with the present time and the end of days. A metahistorical immediacy is also evoked by the transmitted Prophetical sayings, which speak to the believer and suggest blessing and even victory for those who keep hold the Prophetic Sunna. Building on patterns of piety which emerged already in later medieval times, the Prophetic model has since the early modern period (its beginning taken here from c. 1450) increasingly moved among both Sunnī and Shīʿī Muslims into the core of personal and collective efforts to strengthen the individual and to renew Islamic culture and politics. But the increased attachment to  the  Prophet  has equally reinforced and deepened the existing fractures within Islam, and also the tensions and conflicts with non-­Muslims, which have gained in intensity whenever the Prophet and his image are at stake.

A Franco-­German research group

Bochum – April 2017

 The joint explorative enterprise intended by this Franco-­German research group, which has been engaged in academic exchange for a number  of  years,  seeks  to  explore  the  various forms of attachment to the Prophet which have contributed to the formation of the Muslim individual and to the development of Islamic culture and politics since  the  early  modern period,  in  a  time  of  continuing  expansion  but  also  decentering  of  the  Muslim  world.

A four-years program

The four-­years programme will in its first year focus on the development of  the  doctrinal, cultural and medial representations of the Prophet (1. ʺRepresentations of the Prophet: figurations and controversies”). It will shift in the second year to the Prophet as a ressource of personal and collective empowerment and of legal and political authority and power (2. “Heirs of the Prophet: authority and power”). The third year will be dedicated to the dynamics of individual and collective experience connected with  Prophetic  piety  (3. “Prophetic piety between individual and collective experience”). The last year will be devoted to the publications. The programme is designed to clear the ground for interdisciplinary and comparative approaches to the history of Prophetic piety and its different dimensions since the early modern period. Its larger goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the interplay between religion, society and politics in a central field of Islamic culture which has turned over the last decades into an arena of conflict on an increasingly global scale.